A tool for assessing Risk Of Bias due to Missing Evidence in a synthesis

Welcome to the website for the ROB-ME tool. 

Current version

Download the 1 October 2023 version:

A paper describing ROB-ME is available in the BMJ.

Citing the tool

The ROB-ME tool may be cited as:

Page MJ, Sterne JAC, Boutron I, Hróbjartsson A, Kirkham JJ, Li T, Lundh A, Mayo-Wilson E, McKenzie JE, Stewart LA, Sutton AJ, Bero L, Dunn AG, Dwan K, Elbers RG, Kanukula R, Meerpohl JJ, Turner EH, Higgins JPT. ROB-ME: a tool for assessing risk of bias due to missing evidence in systematic reviews with meta-analysis. BMJ 2023 (Nov 20); 383: e076754; doi: 10.1136/bmj-2023-076754.

Archived version

This previous version was released here on 24 October 2020.

For feedback on on ROB-ME,  please email Matthew Page at